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Outline chronology

     

1940

  • September: Discovery of a seam of pink granite on Mont Louise by the SS engineer Blumberg.

1941

  • March: Decision to open the KL-Natzweiler : by Himmler
  • April: Arrival of the first SS garrison
  • May: Arrival of the first German and Austrian deportees transferred from KL-Sachsenhausen: for the construction of the camp and its road system

1942

  • February: Installation of the first huts of the camp
  • March: Creation of the quarry work Kommando
  • 4 August: Escape of 5 deportees from the central camp: the only example of a successful escape. 1 of the deportees was recaptured and hanged on 5 November
  • September: Change in the camp's status, it can now receive deportees directly from prisons and polices and not simply from other concentration camps as was the case up to then
  • December: Opening of the first camp annexed to Struthof at Obernai

1943

The number of deportees triples

  • February: 13 young men from Ballersdorf (Haut-Rhin), after resisting their forced conscription, are shot in the sand quarry
  • June: Arrival of the first NN deportees. Work starts on the construction of the Kartoffelkeller:
  • August: Gassing of 86 Jews in a former outhouse of the Struthof hotel as part of the pseudo-scientific experiments by Professor Hirt.
  • October: Last stage in the construction of the camp: installation of the gas chamber block  crematorium
  • December: Opening of camp annexes linked to the war industry, the first at Schömberg

1944

  • 6 juillet : Execution of 4 SOE resistance fighters (Special Operations Executive : ) by injection.
  • August: The camp is saturated, with over three times its reception capacity
  • 1-2 September: 107 members of the Alliance network and 35 members of the Groupe Mobile Alsace-Vosges are taken by truck to the camp and executed
  • 2-20 September: Evacuation of the principal camp by the Nazis to Dachau and Allach
  • 11 November: Transfer of the camp administration to Guttenbach.
    After the evacuation of the central camp, the camp annexes located east of the Rhine continue to function
  • 23 November: The Kl-Natzweiler is the first concentration camp discovered in Western Europe

1945

  • March-April : Evacuation of the camp annexes, as part of the "Death Marches"

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