In early September 1944, as the Allied armies were advancing, the Nazis decided to evacuate the principal camp and most of the prisoners were transferred to Dachau. Only a few remained in Natzweiler, guarded by a small SS unit. On 23 November, the day Strasbourg was liberated, the American army entered the camp, the first example of the Nazi concentration camp system discovered by the Allies in Western Europe.
Of the 52,000 people deported to Natzweiler-Struthof or its annexes between 1941 and 1944, over 20,000 died.
In 1945, the Allies tried the top-ranking Nazis in Nuremberg. Then they organised separate trials for the SS of each of the principal camps. Josef Kramer, former commandant of Natzweiler and later commandant of Bergen-Belsen, was tried by the British for his role in the latter camp. The other SS staff of Natzweiler, arrested or on the run, were sentenced at trials in Wuppertal, Rastatt and Metz.