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Comparative timeline


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Europe - World History France History History camps in Europe History of KL-Natzweiler
|< < 1919 > >|

15 JAN 1919

Assassination in Berlin of the Spartacists Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxembourg.

28 JUN 1919

Signature by Germany of the Treaty of Versailles.

16 NOV 1919

Admiral Horthy's army enters Budapest. On 1 March he is named regent of Hungary for life.
|< < 1920 > >|

24 FEB 1920

Hitler transforms the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei into the National-sozialistische deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), more commonly known as the Nazi Party.

15 NOV 1920

First meeting of the League of Nations in Geneva
|< < 1922 > >|

27 OCT 1922

Until 29 October march on Rome by Mussolini and his "black shirts".

30 OCT 1922

Mussolini becomes president of the Italian Council.
|< < 1923 > >|

11 JAN 1923

France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr.
|< < 1925 > >|

3 JAN 1925

Mussolini announces his dictatorship. He receives full powers in December.
|< < 1929 > >|

11 FEB 1929

Mussolini and Pius XI sign the Lateran Accords.
|< < 1930 > >|

14 JAN 1930

The French parliament passes the Maginot Bill authorising the construction of a defensive line in eastern France known as the Maginot Line.
|< < 1933 > >|

30 JAN 1933

Marshal Hindenburg, president of Germany, appoints Hitler chancellor.

28 FEB 1933

Decree "for the protection of the people and the State", which does away with all constitutional guarantees and sets up preventive custody on the day after the Reichstag fire.

20 MAR 1933

Oranienburg concentration camp opens in a former brewery.

20 MAR 1933

Dachau, the first concentration camp for opponents of the Nazi regime, opens.

23 MAR 1933

Hitler obtains full powers from the Reichstag.

11 SEP 1933

Pastor Niemöller creates the Association of Pastors in Distress. In 1937, he is interned as Hitler's personal prisoner in various concentration camps.
|< < 1934 > >|

28 JAN 1934

Prague Manifesto by the SPD leaders in exile

6 FEB 1934

Far-right groups try to storm the Chamber of Deputies in Paris.
|< < 1935 > >|

22 JAN 1935

Boris III of Bulgaria overthrows his prime minister and seizes power.

16 MAR 1935

Decree on the constitution of the Wehrmacht, of which Hitler becomes supreme commander. Conscription is restored, in breach of the Versailles Treaty.

15 SEP 1935

Nuremberg Laws for the "protection of German blood and honour". German Jews lose all their political rights.

9 OCT 1935

Assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia in Marseilles.

25 OCT 1935

Hitler and Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
|< < 1936 > >|

7 MAR 1936

Germany occupies the Rhineland in breach of the Versailles Treaty.

18 JUL 1936

The day before, General Franco leads an uprising of his garrison in Morocco. On 18 and 19 July the military throughout Spain rebels against the Popular Front government, which took office on 16 February.

9 SEP 1936

A London , 1ère réunion du Comité de non-intervention en Espagne. Cependant, des Brigades internationales sont formées, les premières arriveront en novembre en Espagne.

1 NOV 1936

Mussolini announces the Rome-Berlin Axis signed on 25 October.
|< < 1937 > >|

26 APR 1937

Germany's Condor Legion bombs Guernica (Spain).
|< < 1938 > >|

12 MAR 1938

Germany annexes Austria (Anschluss). Seyss-Inquart becomes chancellor the next day.

29 APR 1938

Creation of Deutsche Erd und Steinwerke GmbH, an SS company that uses deportees at Natzweiler camp to quarry stone.

8 AUG 1938

Start of the construction of Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria. The camp is built near a quarry with 186 stone steps that the deports must climb while carrying blocks of stone.

21 SEP 1938

Heydrich issues directives creating ghettos in occupied Poland.

22 SEP 1938

Flossenbürg concentration camp opens.

30 SEP 1938

On 29 and 30 September the Munich Conference brings together the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy, which proposed the meeting to settle border issues in central Europe. An accord is signed: Chamberlain and Daladier ratify the attachment of the Sudetenland to Germany.

9 NOV 1938

Kristallnacht. Nationwide pogrom in Germany against the Jews ordered by Goebbels claims 91 lives and over 20,000 are sent to Dachau and Buchenwald.

9 DEC 1938

Gypsies in the Reich are put on a list.

13 DEC 1938

The first deportees arrive in Neuengamme, where a concentration camp is built near a brickyard.
|< < 1939 > >|

10 FEB 1939

Spanish Civil War: fall of Catalonia.

27 FEB 1939

France and the United Kingdom recognise General Franco's regime.

15 MAR 1939

German troops enter Czechoslovakia. The day before, the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and the independence of Slovakia were proclaimed.

28 MAR 1939

The Nationalists take Madrid and Valencia. The Republican army surrendered the day before. It is the end of the Spanish Civil War.

22 MAY 1939

Victory parade in Madrid: the Nationalists file past their leader, the Caudillo.

23 JUN 1939

Reorganisation of Germany's state police forces d'Etat and creation of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) under the dual authority of Himmler and Heydrich.

23 AUG 1939

German-Soviet non-aggression pact.

1 SEP 1939

Germany invades Poland.

3 SEP 1939

The United Kingdom and France declare war on Germany.

27 SEP 1939

Warsaw (Poland) surrenders.

28 SEP 1939

Partition of Poland and the Baltic States between German and the USSR in conclusion of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact.

28 OCT 1939

On the anniversary of the creation of an independent Czechoslovakian state, several thousand people march in the streets of Prague wearing the national colours.

17 NOV 1939

The Nazis close Czech universities.

30 NOV 1939

Invasion of Finland by the Soviet Union.
|< < 1940 > >|

2 JAN 1940

Soviet offensive in Karelia (Finland).

16 JAN 1940

Hitler delays his offensive in the west due to bad weather and orders the preparation of an attack on Scandinavia.

29 FEB 1940

Prime Minister Paul Reynaud devalues the franc.

9 APR 1940

Invasion of Denmark and Norway by the Wehrmacht. All the Norwegian ports from Oslo to Narvik are conquered.

22 APR 1940

Allied troops land at Namsos on the 19th but the Germans stop them. On the 27th, the Allies land at Narvik. On 7 June they must leave Norway after the fall of the city.

23 APR 1940

Josef Terboven is named Reichskommissar of Norway.

4 MAY 1940

Construction Auschwitz concentration camp begins. The first deportees, Polish political prisoners, arrive on 14 June.

10 MAY 1940

The Wehrmacht invades the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
Winston Churchill becomes prime minister of the United Kingdom.

11 MAY 1940

Deutsche Erde und Steinwerke, an SS company, purchases the granite quarry of Gross-Rosen. In August, a concentration camp is set up nearby. It operates until February 1945, when the SS evacuates the camp to Germany.

13 MAY 1940

German tanks reach Sedan and break through the front in several places.

14 MAY 1940

The Luftwaffe bombs Rotterdam. The Dutch army surrenders. The day before, and queen and government fled to London.

17 MAY 1940

German troops occupy Brussels, Louvain and Namur.

18 MAY 1940

Arthur Seyss-Inquart becomes Reichskommissar of the Netherlands. He was sentenced to death at the Nuremberg trial and hanged on 16 October 1946.

19 MAY 1940

General Weygand replaces General Gamelin.

28 MAY 1940

Capitulation of the Belgian army. The king gives himself up as a "voluntary prisoner".

30 MAY 1940

Establishment in Brussels of the Militärbefehlshaber in Belgium und Nord Frankreich headed by General von Falkenhausen. The Pierlot government takes refuge in France and, later, London, in October, where he forms a government in exile.

7 JUN 1940

The king of Norway announces that he and his government are leaving for London.

14 JUN 1940

The Wehrmacht occupies Paris.

16 JUN 1940

French prime minister Paul Reynaud resigns.

17 JUN 1940

Marshal Pétain, the new head of the French government, asks for a ceasefire.

18 JUN 1940

General de Gaulle issues his appeal on the BBC in London.

20 JUN 1940

From the 20th to the 26th, men from the Ile de Sein join General de Gaulle in London.

24 JUN 1940

France and Italy sign the armistice in Rome. Italy, which had declared war on France and the United Kingdom, occupies part of Menton.

25 JUN 1940

The armistices that France signed with Germany on the 22nd and Italy on the 24th enter into force.

27 JUN 1940

German troops reach the Franco-Spanish border.

29 JUN 1940

On the birthday of Prince Bernard of the Netherlands, the Dutch wear white carnations in their lapels.

1 JUL 1940

General de Gaulle asks Colonel Passy to create the Free French secret services.

2 JUL 1940

Hitler asks his general staff to draw up plans to invade England (code name "sea lion"), but abandons the idea after the Luftwaffe's defeat in the Battle of Britain.

3 JUL 1940

The British attack the French fleet at Mers el-Kébir.

8 JUL 1940

Speech on the BBC in London by King Haakon VII of Norway asserting that and his government are the country's only legitimate authorities.

10 JUL 1940

The national assembly votes to give Marshal Pétain full powers. The next day he institutes the French state. Pierre Laval becomes vice-prime minister.

29 JUL 1940

Luxembourg, which at first was placed under military occupation, is attached to the Gau of Moselle, administered by Gustav Simon. On 7 August the use of all languages other than German is outlawed.

2 AUG 1940

The military tribunal of Clermond-Ferrand sentences General de Gaulle to death in absentia for desertion and crimes against state security.

7 AUG 1940

Churchill-de Gaulle accords. The United Kingdom recognises the Free French Forces.

13 AUG 1940

The Battle of Britain begins: "the day of the eagle".

27 AUG 1940

French Equatorial Africa goes over to Free France. Félix Eboué fled to Chad the day before.

31 AUG 1940

The 1st issue of Vry Nederland is published in the Netherlands.

4 SEP 1940

Marshall Antononescu is called to power in Roumania.

6 SEP 1940

General Cochet issues a call to resistance.

10 SEP 1940

A vein of pink granite is discovered on Mount Louise.

25 SEP 1940

In Norway, Reichskommissar Terboven announces the abolition of all political parties except the Nasjonal Samsung, the Norwegian Nazi party led by Quisling.

3 OCT 1940

1st Jewish statute in France.

7 OCT 1940

Colonel Loustaunau-Lacau creates the Alliance network in the southern zone.

8 OCT 1940

From this date onward, German troops are stationed in Roumania but the country's sovereignty is not called into question.

10 OCT 1940

In Belgium, a German decree excludes Jews from public employment.

17 OCT 1940

The RAF bombs Kiel naval base (Germany).

18 OCT 1940

A German decree "aryanises" Jewish property in the occupied zone.

22 OCT 1940

The German authorities dissolve Luxembourg's Chamber of Deputies and Council of State.

23 OCT 1940

Hitler meets Franco in Hendaye.

24 OCT 1940

Hitler meets Pétain in Montoire.

10 NOV 1940

People in Brussels put flowers on the First World War monument of the unknown soldier.

19 NOV 1940

The king of Belgium meets Hitler in Berchtesgaden.

24 NOV 1940

Slovakia's head of state signs membership in the Tripartite Pact in Berlin.

29 NOV 1940

Laval hands over to Germany the gold that Belgium's National Bank had entrusted to France.

6 DEC 1940

Marshal Badoglio, commander in chief of Italy's troops, resigns. By this time Italy, which had invaded Albania, is suffering setbacks.

11 DEC 1940

Germay and Italy declare war on the United States.

18 DEC 1940

In France, a German decree institutes the death penalty for anybody who writes, prints or distributes tracts.

23 DEC 1940

On the BBC, General de Gaulle issues his first call for a mass demonstration in France on New Year's Day.

30 DEC 1940

On the 29th and 30th, Luftwaffe air raids of London set off blazes. Saint Paul's cathedral is on fire.
|< < 1941 > >|

7 JAN 1941

The British capture Tobruk Airport (Libya).

9 JAN 1941

The Vichy government requires all 20-year-old men to undergo training in the "Chantiers de Jeunesse".

10 JAN 1941

In the Netherlands, Jews must register with the authorities.

19 JAN 1941

Start of the British offensive in Ethiopie et en Erythrée qui depuis 1935 font partie de l'empire italien.

21 JAN 1941

Lieutenant Honoré d'Estienne d'Orves is arrested. Shot by firing squad at Mont-Valérien on 29 August, he is the first Free France member executed by the Germans.

8 FEB 1941

The United States Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act.

9 FEB 1941

A pastoral letter condemning the Terboven regime is read in Norway's churches.

21 FEB 1941

On 21 and 22 February the Germans organise the first round-ups of Jews in Amsterdam.

23 FEB 1941

Seven members of the Musée de l'Homme resistance group are shot by firing squad at Mont Valérien .

25 FEB 1941

On 25 and 26 February the Dutch go on strike to express solidarity with Amsertdam's Jews.

1 MAR 1941

Leclerc takes the Koufra oasis in Libya from an Italian garrison.

2 MAR 1941

Enactment of anti-Semitic laws in Roumania.

29 MAR 1941

Creation of the Commissariat for Jewish Affairs, which implements the process of excluding Jews from the economy.

31 MAR 1941

Hans Hüttig is named the Natzweiler camp's first commander. He issues his first order on 28 April.

6 APR 1941

Germany invades Greece and Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav army capitulates on the 17th.

10 APR 1941

Fall of Zagreb (Croatia).

11 APR 1941

Italy and Hungary invade Yugoslavi. Italy occupies Ljubljana (capital of Slovenia).

15 APR 1941

Ante Pavelich becomes head of the Croatian state.

16 APR 1941

Fall of Sarajevo. King Peter II of Yugoslavia flees to Athens with his government.

18 APR 1941

Bulgaria joins the war on the Axis side.

27 APR 1941

The Germans occupy Athens. On the 23rd, King George and his government fled to Crete.

6 MAY 1941

The first agent of the French section of the SOE (Special Operations Executive) is parachuted into France.

14 MAY 1941

First round-up of Jews (foreign and stateless) in the occupied zone.

20 MAY 1941

The Germans attack Crete, occupied since November 1940 by the British, conquering the island in 12 days. King George flees to London, his government takes refuge in Egypt.

21 MAY 1941

Arrival of the first convoy of deportees transferred from KL-Sachsenhausen to build roads and the camp. They are Germans and Austrians.

23 MAY 1941

The second convoy of deportees arrives.

26 MAY 1941

Death of Albert Bergmann, the camp's first fatality.

27 MAY 1941

Miners go on strike in northern France from 21 May to 9 June. Many of them are deported to Sachsenhausen. They are the first French political deportees.

2 JUN 1941

2nd Jewish statue and start of the census of Jews in the unoccupied zone.

8 JUN 1941

War breaks out in Syria between the Vichy army on one side and the Free French Forces and British on the other.

22 JUN 1941

Invasion of the USSR by the Wehrmacht.

5 JUL 1941

Tito calls for resistance in Yugoslavia.

7 JUL 1941

Creation of the Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolchevism (LVF) in the occupied zone.

14 JUL 1941

The first issue of "Défense de la France" is published in the occupied zone.

31 JUL 1941

Goering orders Heydrich to implement the "final solution".

3 AUG 1941

In a sermon, Monsignor von Galen condemns operation T4, which exterminates the mentally ill. The operation, which took over 70,000 lives, is suspended at the end of the month.

13 AUG 1941

Two young communists commit the first attack against a German officer in Paris.

14 AUG 1941

Publication of the Atlantic Charter after Roosevelt and Churchill meet off the coast of Newfoundland from 9 to 12 August.

20 AUG 1941

2nd round-up of Jews (foreign and stateless) in the occupied zone; 3,477 are arrested and interned in Drancy. The next round-up, also in the Paris area, on 12 December, targets intellectuals and prominent figures.

16 SEP 1941

Marshal Keitel, the Wehrmacht's chief of staff, promulgates a decree enacting the death penalty for anyone who commits attacks against the occupier.

24 SEP 1941

General de Gaulle sets up the French National Committee in London. Its status is comparable to that of a government.

29 SEP 1941

On 28 and 29 September, Einsatzgruppen, made up of SS, Gestapo members and locally recruited auxiliaries, massacre 34,000 Jews at Babi Yar near Kiev (Ukraine).

16 OCT 1941

A compter de cette date, les Juifs du Luxembourg, déjà fichés, spoliés et invités à quitter le territoire, sont transférés dans des ghettos, puis à partir d'avril 1942 dans les camps de la mort. Sur 683 Juifs déportés, 43 ont survécu.

19 OCT 1941

Proclamation of a state of siege in Moscow, besieged by the Wehrmacht.

20 OCT 1941

Jean Moulin arrives in London. In January he is parachuted into France as General de Gaulle's representative to unify the Resistance movements in the southern zone. His action results in the creation of the National Resistance Council in May 1943.

21 OCT 1941

Execution of 48 hostages, including 27 in Châteaubriant, in reprisal for an attack on a German officer in Nantes.

7 NOV 1941

In a speech, Stalin calls for the Allies to open a second front in the west against the Nazis.

4 DEC 1941

Le général Sikorski, chef du gouvernement polonais en exil à Londres, signe à Moscou avec Staline un pacte d'assistance mutuelle.

5 DEC 1941

Début de la contre-offensive de l'armée rouge, alors que la Wehrmacht a coupé la route Moscou-Léningrad.

7 DEC 1941

Attaque japonaise contre la base américaine de Pearl Harbor (archipel des îles Hawaï).

8 DEC 1941

The Chelmno killing centre (Poland) begins operating: 340,000 Jews and 20,000 non-Jewish Poles are executed there until April 1943.

12 DEC 1941

Keitel's 2nd NN (Nacht und Nebel) decree; the 1st decree was signed on 7 December.

14 DEC 1941

General von Stülpnagel orders the execution of 100 hostages after an attack on a Paris hotel where Luftwaffe officers are quartered.

17 DEC 1941

The occupation authorities use the assassination of an officer as an excuse to levy a one-billion-franc fine on the Jewish community.

19 DEC 1941

Hitler limoge le commandant en chef de l'armée de terre. Il assume lui même cette fonction tout en en déléguant une partie au maréchal Keitel.

20 DEC 1941

Colonel Rémy, founder of the Confrérie Notre-Dame, obtains maps of the German submarine base in Lorient.

21 DEC 1941

Jacques Arthuys, head of the Organisation civile et militaire (OCM), is arrested.
|< < 1942 > >|

1 JAN 1942

26 countries sign the United Nations Declaration in Washington.

8 JAN 1942

The trial of the Musée de l'Homme Resistance network opens in Paris.

13 JAN 1942

The first gassings start at Auschwitz, which at the time is a complex of three main camps: Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II "Birkenau" and Auschwitz III "Monowitz".

20 JAN 1942

Wannsee Conference, during which the Nazis plan the "final solution" (extermination of the Jews).

1 FEB 1942

Investiture de Vidkun Quisling comme chef du gouvernement norvégien. L'office célébré dans la cathédrale d'Oslo est boycotté par les autorités religieuses et les fidèles.

12 FEB 1942

On 11 and 12 February, Norwegian teachers meet to prepare a declaration expressing their refusal to join the new trade union that Quisling wants to create. On 22 March 1,100 teachers are arrested and interned.

19 FEB 1942

The trial opens in Riom of Third Republic political figures blamed for the defeat of France in 1940.

20 FEB 1942

Les Editions de Minuit publishes "Silence de la Mer".

4 MAR 1942

A German court martial of members of the French Communist Party's Youth Battalions takes place at the Palais Bourbon from 4 to 6 March.

5 MAR 1942

In the United Kingdom conscription is extended to men up to 45 and to wome between 20 and 30.

6 MAR 1942

A decree on compulsory labour appears in Belgium.

14 MAR 1942

From this convoy onward, political deportees make up the majority at KL-Natzweiler.

17 MAR 1942

Exterminations start at the Belzec killing centre, where 600,000 Jews are murdered by the end of the year.

22 MAR 1942

King Boris III of Bulgaria meets Hitler.

30 MAR 1942

Arrival in Auschwitz of the first convoy from France, which left Royallieu camp in Compiègne on 27 March 1942.

5 APR 1942

On Easter Sunday Norway's bishops and pastors break their administrative ties with the statet. Eivind Berggrav, primate of the Church, is arrested. Pastors are deported.

14 APR 1942

The Alsatian Resistance fighter Marcel Weinum, who had planted a bomb in the car of the Gauleiter of Alsace, Wagner, is executed in Stuttgart.

24 APR 1942

Egon Zill is appointed the camp's second commander.

1 MAY 1942

Demonstration in the unoccupied zone after a call by the Resistance.

24 MAY 1942

De Gaulle and Molotov meet in London.

29 MAY 1942

The German occupation authorities France requires all Jews over six years old in the northern zone to wear a yellow star. After Germany occupies the southern zone, the identity cards of Jews are stamped with the word "Juif".

9 JUN 1942

Dans la nuit du 9 au 10 juin, les SS massacrent les habitants de Lidice en Bohême en représailles de l'assassinat de Heydrich "Reichsprotector" de Bohême-Moravie.

11 JUN 1942

On the night of 10 to 11 June, General Koenig's 1st BFL, which had been defending Bir Hakeim (Libya) since 27 May, refuses to surrender to Rommel and joins the British lines.

12 JUN 1942

Hitler reçoit le maréchal Antonescu, chef du gouvernement roumain.

15 JUL 1942

From 15 July to 1942 to 13 September 1944, the Germans deport 107,000 Dutch Jews. The Dutch Resistance helps to hide 25,000 to 30,000 Jews. Two-thirds of them survive.

16 JUL 1942

French gendarmes and police officers arrest nearly 13,000 Jewish men, women and children on 16 and 17 July. Most are assembled in the Vélodrome d'Hiver before being interned in the camps of the Loiret. The rest are interned in Drancy prior to being deported during the summer.

22 JUL 1942

Treblinka extermination camp opens in Poland. The day before, the Nazis opened the one in Majdanek.

4 AUG 1942

Five deportees working in kommandos at Struthof Inn escape from the camp.

5 AUG 1942

General de Gaulle leaves on an inspection tour in Africa and the Middle East.

11 AUG 1942

The Nazis shoot 98 hostages at Mont Valérien.

19 AUG 1942

Echec du raid anglo-canadien sur Dieppe.

30 AUG 1942

Instauration du service militaire obligatoire (incorporation de force dans la Wehrmacht) au Luxembourg. Le lendemain, une grève est déclenchée dans le basin minier de Esch. Elle gagne la capitale Luxembourg et se poursuit jusqu'au 4 septembre. Une répression s'en suit : arrestations, 40 personnes déportées et 21 exécutées.

4 OCT 1942

Josef Kramer is appointed the camp's third commander.

5 OCT 1942

Himmler decides to move all Jewish internees to the Auschwitz or Majdanek extermination camps.

13 OCT 1942

Strikes against compulsory labour servicee (STO) break out in the southern zone.

4 NOV 1942

Le général Montgomery remporte la victoire d'El-Alamein contre les troupes de Rommel en Egypte.

5 NOV 1942

Alfons Christmann, the only one of the five escapees in August who was caught, is hanged.

8 NOV 1942

Les Alliés débarquent en Afrique du Nord.

11 NOV 1942

The Germans cross the demarcation and invade the "free" zone on the anniversary of the Armistice on 11 November 1918.

18 NOV 1942

In Vichy, a constitutional act gives Laval full powers.

25 NOV 1942

Mustard gas experiments start. Medical school professor Hirt uses deportees as guinea pigs.

26 NOV 1942

The French fleet is scuttled in Toulon harbour to avoid falling into German hands. The submarine "Casablanca" manages to reach Free France.

1 DEC 1942

Début de la campagne de Tunisie qui s'achève le 7 mai par la prise de Tunis par les Alliés. Les troupes allemandes et italiennes sont rejetées hors d'Afrique.

3 DEC 1942

The Vichy government passes a law requiring the French to report any munitions stocks they might be aware of. Those who do not are subject to the death penalty.

15 DEC 1942

Opening of Obernai camp, the first Natzweiler subcamp, where deportees work for the SS.
|< < 1943 > >|

6 JAN 1943

In Montluçon, demonstrators block a train bringing STO labour conscripts to Germany.

20 JAN 1943

The first convoy of deportees from Luxembourg arrives.

24 JAN 1943

End of the Casablanca conference, which began on the 13th. Roosevelt and Churchill plan a meeting with Stalin during this conference. They also try to settle the relationship between Giraud and de Gaulle.

29 JAN 1943

Kaltenbrunner succeeds Heydrich as head of the RSHA.

31 JAN 1943

The RAF bombs Hamburg.

2 FEB 1943

The German general Paulus capitulates before Stalingrad, which he has besieged since 13 September 1942.

3 FEB 1943

From this date forward, the main camp's vital statistics department records deportee deaths.

16 FEB 1943

The Vichy government establishes compulsory labour (Service du Travail Obligatoire, or STO), prompting many young men to join the maquis.

17 FEB 1943

13 young men from Ballersdorf (Haut-Rhin) who refused to be forcefully enlisted into the Wehrmacht are shot in the sand quarry.

22 FEB 1943

Execution of Hans and Sophie Scholl and C .Probst, students leaders of the White Rose resistance movement in Germany.

26 FEB 1943

The first convoys of Gypsies reach Auschwitz.

19 MAR 1943

Fred Scamaroni, General de Gaulle's envoy to Corsica to plan the island's liberation, commits suicide in Ajaccio citadel after his arrest.

13 APR 1943

Discovery of the mass graves in Katyn, Poland.

19 APR 1943

Start of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, which ends on 19 May. Tens of thousands of Jews are killed in the fighting, 7,000 are executed and 22,000 deported to the killing centres of Treblinka and Lublin.

3 MAY 1943

Aux Pays-Bas, le 29 avril est annoncé le départ en Allemagne au titre du STO des anciens prisonniers de guerre. Le 30 avril démarre dans tout le pays une grève qui réunit près d'un demi-million de personnes jusqu'au 3 mai.

25 MAY 1943

The SS doctor Mengele orders the gassing of over 1,000 Gypsies in Auschwitz.

31 MAY 1943

General de Gaulle arrives in Algiers.

3 JUN 1943

The French National Liberation Committee is created in Algiers. On 3 June 1944, it becomes the provisional government of the French Republic. It is presided by General de Gaulle.

15 JUN 1943

The first NN convoy arrives. It is made up of 71 Norwegians.

21 JUN 1943

Jean Moulin is arrested in Caluire. On the 30th, Georges Bidault succeeds him as president of the National Resistance Council.

30 JUN 1943

Construction of the Kartoffelkeller begins.

4 JUL 1943

Le roi de Grèce, alors en exil, en accord avec les partis et les mouvements de résistance, annonce que dans les 6 mois suivant la libération les Grecs éliront une assemblée consultative et choisiront leurs institutions. Au préalable, il a aboli la dictature instaurée en 1936.

9 JUL 1943

The first convoy of French NN deportees arrives, from Fresnes prison.

10 JUL 1943

The first convoy of Dutch NN deportees arrives.

12 JUL 1943

The second convoy of French NN deportees arrives, from Fresnes prison.

15 JUL 1943

The third convoy of French NN deportees arrives, from Romainville Fort.

19 JUL 1943

Rencontre Hitler-Mussolini près de Trévise.

25 JUL 1943

Chute et arrestation de Mussolini.

28 JUL 1943

Fin du bombardement de Hambourg par la RAF. Il avait commencé le 25.

30 JUL 1943

A convoy of Jews chosen for Dr.Hirt's skeleton "collection" leaves Auschwitz for Natzweiler.

14 AUG 1943

The killing of Jews in the gas chamber opposite the Struthof inn starts.

16 AUG 1943

Du 10 juillet au 16 août, la Sicile est libérée par les Alliés.

18 AUG 1943

Dans la nuit du 17 au 18 août, les Alliés bombardent le site de Peenemunde où les nazis fabriquent les V 1 et V 2. Les Allemands décident alors d'enterrer cette production.

29 AUG 1943

Dans la nuit du 28 au 29 août, l'armée allemande prend le pouvoir à Copenhague à la suite de la démission du gouvernement danois, qui refuse d'interdire les grèves déclenchées dans tous le pays, depuis juillet, à l'annonce de la création d'un corps spécial danois pour protéger les usines des sabotages de la résistance.

8 SEP 1943

Italy surrenders and the Allies land in the Bay of Naples.

20 SEP 1943

The Reich Central Security Office orders all NN deportees moved to Natzweiler by 15 June 1944. The plan is not fully carried out.

1 OCT 1943

A decree is published announcing that families of Wehrmacht draft resisters and deserters in Alsace and Moselle will be deported.

2 OCT 1943

Dans la nuit du 1er au 2 octobre, débute l'arrestation des Juifs danois par la police allemande. Le lendemain, la résistance danoise organise leur sauvetage. En un mois, 7 200 Juifs sont évacués en Suède. 500 arrêtés sont déportés vers le ghetto de Terezin.

6 OCT 1943

The Norwegian Leif Poulson, doctor at the deportees' "infirmiry", arrives at the camp.

11 OCT 1943

Joseph Darnand, head of the Militia, joins the Waffen SS.

14 OCT 1943

The camp's crematorium is operational.

2 NOV 1943

The crematory block at the bottom of the camp is completed. The work began on 8 May.

6 NOV 1943

General de Gaulle opens the Consultative Assembly in Algiers on 3 November, prompting him to reshuffle the French National Liberation Committee as a result.

12 NOV 1943

A convoy of 100 Gypsies arrives from Auschwitz. Professor Haagen uses them as guinea pigs for his typhus experiments.

13 NOV 1943

A resistance group destroys the German artillery yard in Grenoble.

21 NOV 1943

The French Expeditionary Corps' first units land in Italy.

27 NOV 1943

The BCRA is reshuffled and its services move to Algiers.

28 NOV 1943

Début de la Conférence de Téhéran qui se tient jusqu'au 2 décembre. C'est la première conférence des Trois Grands : Roosevelt, Churchill et Staline. Ils débattent des débarquements à venir, de la création de l'ONU, ainsi que du sort de l'Allemagne et de celui de la Pologne.

16 DEC 1943

Opening of the Schömberg subcamp, first in the series of Wüste.

25 DEC 1943

Two Soviet deportees are hanged in the presence of all the camp's deportees except the Revier patients.

27 DEC 1943

The French and the Allies sign a military accord in Algiers on the use of French units.

28 DEC 1943

The Secret Army and FTP conclude a joint action accord.
|< < 1944 > >|

5 JAN 1944

Creation of the Mouvement de libération nationale (MLN) grouping together the Mouvements unis de résistance (MUR) and several movements in the northern zone.

5 FEB 1944

The Gestapo arrests Michel Hollard, who collected intelligence on VI launching sites for the Allies.

14 FEB 1944

The National Resistance Council meets and agrees to the integration of the ORA in the Forces françaises de l'intérieur (FFI).

15 FEB 1944

Allied air raid on the abbey of Montecassino (Italy). The position is taken in May.

21 FEB 1944

22 FTP-MOI, including Missak Manouchian, the group's leader, are executed at Mont-Valérien.

3 MAR 1944

The Italian resistance organises massive strikes in northern Italy. The armements factories are particularly hard hit.

9 MAR 1944

General Delestraint, head of the Secret Army, arrives at the camp.

10 MAR 1944

Alexandre Parodi replaces Emile Bollaert, who was arrested on 3 February with Pierre Brossolette, as general representative in occupied France.

11 MAR 1944

In Algiers, a former minister of the Vichy government, Pierre Pucheu, is sentenced to death and later executed.

18 MAR 1944

Hitler meets Horthy in Salzburg. The next day, the German army enters Hungary.

24 MAR 1944

Massacre of the Ardeatine Caves in Rome. In retaliation for an attack on German soldiers, the occupation authorities execute 335 prisoners, including approximately 100 Jews and the head of the Roman resistance.

26 MAR 1944

From 24 to 27 March the Germans storm the Glières plateau. On the 27th, 170 Resistance fighers are arrested. Some are deported.

27 MAR 1944

Arrival of German troops in Roumania.

2 APR 1944

After the Resistance sabotages a railway, the SS massacres 86 inhabitants of Ascq (Nord) in reprisal.

8 APR 1944

General Giraud is definitively pushed aside.

21 APR 1944

The French National Liberation Committee issues a decree organising the government in France and giving women the right to vote.

9 MAY 1944

The US Air Force bombs Luftwafffe bases in France.

12 MAY 1944

Arrival of Fritz Hartjenstein, who was appointed the camp's fourth commander on 5 May.

15 MAY 1944

Start of the deportation of Hungarian Jews, who had been assembled in ghettos since March. Until 27 June 380,000 Hungarian Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

16 MAY 1944

A Londres, les gouvernements en exil de Belgique, Norvège et Pays-Bas signent avec les Alliés un accord sur l'administration des territoires libérés.

1 JUN 1944

Alerts and instructions go out over the BBC to the Resistance in view of D-Day. They are confirmed on 5 June.

4 JUN 1944

Rome est occupée par les Alliés.

5 JUN 1944

General Jouffrault, the Secret Army's chief of staff in the southern zone, deported to Natzweiler in March 1944, dies at the camp.

6 JUN 1944

Débarquement allié en Normandie, de la Pointe du Hoc à Ouistreham.

10 JUN 1944

Massacre of Oradour-sur-Glane by the Das Reich SS division. The day before, the same division hanged hostages in Tulle.

13 JUN 1944

General Frère, head of the ORA, deported to Natzweiler in May 1944, dies at the camp.

6 JUL 1944

Four female SOE (Special Operations Executive) agents are executed.

11 JUL 1944

From 6 to 12 July General de Gaulle is in the United States, where he obtains official recognition of the provisional government of the French Republic.

20 JUL 1944

Echec d'un attentat contre Hitler. Les conjurés, dont le chef est le colonel von Stauffenberg, sont exécutés.

21 JUL 1944

The Wehrmacht launches a general offensive against the Vercors, killing 456, including 130 civilians.

24 JUL 1944

Soviet troops liberate Majdanek, the first concentration camp that the Allies discover in the East.

1 AUG 1944

Début de l'insurrection de Varsovie. La ville capitule le 2 octobre.

12 AUG 1944

Rencontre Churchill-Tito à Naples en Italie.

15 AUG 1944

The Allies land in Provence at the foot of Les Maures and Esterel.

17 AUG 1944

The last convoy of political and Jewish deportees leaves France for the camps.

21 AUG 1944

Début de la conférence de Dumbarton Oaks, où les Alliés jettent les prémices de l'ONU.

22 AUG 1944

Opening of the Walldorf subcamp for female Jewish internees.

24 AUG 1944

The US Air Force bombs factories and SS residences at Buchenwald, a concentration camp for German opponents to Nazism that opened in July 1937.

25 AUG 1944

The 2nd armoured division liberates Paris and General de Gaulle arrives. The next day, he walks down the Champs-Elysées to the cheers of thousands of Parisians.

26 AUG 1944

Début de l'insurrection nationale en Bulgarie.

28 AUG 1944

Entrée de l'armée rouge dans Bucarest, capitale de la Roumanie.

1 SEP 1944

On the night of 1 to 2 September 107 members of the Alliance network and 35 of the GMA Vosges are executed at the camp.

2 SEP 1944

On the night of 2 to 3 September, start of the main camp's evacuation to Dachau and Allach.

5 SEP 1944

Arrivée de l'armée rouge en Bulgarie. Le 8, le Front de la patrie prend le pouvoir.

7 SEP 1944

The Germans take Pétain and his government to Sigmaringen. They were in Belfort, where the Germans had brought them on 20 August.

12 SEP 1944

Le Front national patriotique roumain, appelé au pouvoir par le roi pour remplacer Antonescu arrêté, signe un armistice avec les Soviétiques.

13 SEP 1944

Jonction de l'armée rouge et de l'armée de libération nationale yougoslave (Tito) à Orskowa.

14 SEP 1944

General de Gaulle, who formed a new government on 9 September, makes his first journey to the provinces.

18 SEP 1944

Mussolini annonce la création de la république de Salo. Il est installé en Italie du Nord sous protection allemande.

19 SEP 1944

Dans tout le Danemark, les SS arrêtent les policiers danois.

23 SEP 1944

The Forces françaises de l'intérieur (FFI) are integrated into the army.

26 SEP 1944

Du 17 au 26, le général britannique Montgomery échoue à Arnhem (Pays-Bas).

12 OCT 1944

Libération d'Athènes (Grèce).

15 OCT 1944

L'amiral Horthy, qui a tenté de négocier un armistice entre les Alliés et son pays, la Hongrie, est destitué. Le 17, il est remplacé par Ferenc Szalasi, chef des Croix fléchées.

31 OCT 1944

Depuis le 17 octobre, Canadiens et Britanniques prennent pied aux Pays-Bas. A la fin de l'année, seul le Nord du pays est libéré.

11 NOV 1944

The camp's administration moves across the Rhine.

14 NOV 1944

General de Lattre unleashes the offensive on Belfort.

22 NOV 1944

Commander Hartjenstein leaves the camp for Germany with the last deportees.

23 NOV 1944

KL-Natzweiler is the first concentration camp discovered by the Allies in the West. On the same day, General Leclerc's 2nd armoured division liberates Strasbourg.

10 DEC 1944

Stalin and de Gaulle sign a Franco-Soviet alliance and mutual assistance treaty in Moscow.

16 DEC 1944

Début de la contre-offensive allemande dans les Ardennes qui s'achève le 31.

22 DEC 1944

Formation d'un gouvernement provisoire hongrois à Debrecen. Il s'installe à Budapest après la fuite de Szalasi à la fin mars 1945.

24 DEC 1944

Churchill se rend à Athènes. Les Britanniques soutiennent les troupes gouvernementales grecques en lutte pour le pouvoir avec les maquisards communistes. Ceux-ci devront accepter un armistice en janvier.

26 DEC 1944

Bonny and Lafont, former French Gestapo members, are executed in Paris.

29 DEC 1944

L'armée rouge entre dans Budapest.

31 DEC 1944

A minuit, débute la contre-offensive de l'armée allemande dans les Vosges.
|< < 1945 > >|

12 JAN 1945

Red Army offensive towards Hungary, Vienna and Berlin.

17 JAN 1945

The evacuation of Auschwitz starts. The Nazis destroy the gas chambers before leading able-bodied deportees on a death march.

18 JAN 1945

The Soviets in Warsaw set up the Lublin Committee created on 22 July 1944. A Polish government in exile was formed in 1939 in Paris, then moved to London. Both form a government of national union in June.

23 JAN 1945

Execution of Count von Moltke, founder of the Kreisau Circle, a German resistance movement that had taken part in the plot of 20 July 1944 against Hitler.

25 JAN 1945

Stutthof camp is evacuated.

27 JAN 1945

The Soviet army enters Auschwitz.

4 FEB 1945

Start of the Yalta Conference, which ends on 11 February, at which the Big Three, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin, decide to divide Germany into four occupation zones (US, British, Soviet and French).

7 FEB 1945

In Belgium the Pierlot government, which had returned from exile on 8 September 1944, resigns, the capital having been liberated by the Allies.

13 FEB 1945

Bombing of Dresden by the Allies.

18 FEB 1945

SS officer Heinrich Schwarz takes over as head of KL-Natzweiler. He organises the subcamps' evacuation and the death marches.

8 MAR 1945

117 Dutchmen are shot by firing squad in reprisal for an attempt to execute an SS general by resistants.

13 MAR 1945

The purge trials start at the High Court of Justice.

25 MAR 1945

Alsace is totally liberated.

1 APR 1945

The Red Army liberates Ravensbrück, a women's concentration camp that had opened on 15 May 1939.

3 APR 1945

On 3 and 4 April, the Allies bomb Dora concentration camp and the Nordhausen subcamp, where deportees had been making V2 rockets since 1943.

4 APR 1945

Hungary is totally occupied by the Red Army.

7 APR 1945

The French army liberates the Vaihingen subcamp, which opened for the war industry. It was the deadliest subcamp.

12 APR 1945

Death of President Franklin Roosevelt.

17 APR 1945

The British army arrests Josef Kramer at Bergen-Belsen conentration camp.

20 APR 1945

The Sachsenhausen death march starts.

25 APR 1945

Junction of the US and Soviet armies at Torgau on the Elbe.

28 APR 1945

Execution of Mussolini by the Italian resistance.

30 APR 1945

Suicide de Hitler à Berlin.

2 MAY 1945

Capitulation des troupes allemandes en Italie.

5 MAY 1945

Aux Pays-Bas, au Danemark et dans le nord-ouest de l'Allemagne, les forces armées allemandes suspendent les armes à la suite de l'accord passé par le général britannique Montgomery avec le Haut Commandement de la Wehrmacht.

7 MAY 1945

Signature de la capitulation du Reich à Reims (France).

8 MAY 1945

Suicide du Commissaire de Reich de Norvège Josef Terboven. Le retour du prince héritier, du gouvernement en exil et du Roi s'échelonnent du 13 mai au 7 juin.
Arrêt des combats en Europe.

19 JUN 1945

Le roi Léopold de Belgique refuse d'abdiquer. Son frère devient régent du royaume.

26 JUN 1945

Signature de la Charte des Nations Unies.

17 JUL 1945

Début de la Conférence de Postdam, entre les Etats-Unis, la Grande-Bretagne et l'URSS. Elle traite de l'après-guerre, du régime allemand, du désarmement complet de l'Allemagne et de la place de l''URSS en Europe.

26 JUL 1945

Démission de Churchill. Il est remplacé par le travailliste Attlee.

6 AUG 1945

Première utilisation de la bombe atomique américaine sur Hiroshima.

9 AUG 1945

Deuxième bombe atomique sur Nagasaki. La veille l'URSS a déclaré la guerre au Japon. L'Armistice avec les Alliés est signé le 2 septembre.

17 SEP 1945

The Lunebourg trial starts. Kramer, the former camp comander, is sentenced to death there.

20 NOV 1945

Ouverture du procès de Nuremberg. Il s'achève le 15 mars 1946.

13 DEC 1945

Joseph Kramer is executed by hanging at Hameln prison in Germany.
|< < 1946 > >|

18 DEC 1946

From 18 December to 31 July 1947, SS officers in charge of subcamps in Germany are on trial before the French military tribunal in Rastatt.
|< < 1949 > >|

2 DEC 1949

The management of the site of the former Natzweiler camp is entrusted to the Ministry of Veterans' Affairs and War Victims.
|< < 1952 > >|

20 DEC 1952

The trial of SS doctors Haagen and Bickenbach starts at the French military tribunal in Metz.
|< < 1954 > >|

15 JUN 1954

From 15 June to 2 July, the main camp's SS officers are on trial at the French military tribunal in Metz.
|< < 1960 > >|

23 JUL 1960

General de Gaulle, president of France, inaugurates the National Deportation Memorial and the National Necropolis.
|< < 2005 > >|

3 NOV 2005

French president Jacques Chirac inaugurates the European Centre on the Resistance and Deportation and the renovated camp museum opens.

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